Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, CSI, CIE, FRS (; ; 30 November 1858 – 23 November 1937), also spelled Jagdish and Jagadis, was a Bengali polymath, physicist, biologist, biophysicist, botanist and archaeologist, and an early writer of science fiction. Living in British India, he pioneered the investigation of radio and microwave optics, made significant contributions to plant science, and laid the foundations of experimental science in the Indian subcontinent. IEEE named him one of the fathers of radio science. Bose is considered the father of Bengali science fiction, and also invented the crescograph, a device for measuring the growth of plants. A crater on the moon has been named in his honour.
Born in Munshiganj, Bengal Presidency during the British Raj (present-day Bangladesh), Bose graduated from St. Xavier's College, Calcutta. He then went to the University of London to study medicine, but could not pursue studies in medicine because of health problems. Instead, he conducted his research with the Nobel Laureate Lord Rayleigh at Cambridge and returned to India. He then joined the Presidency College of the University of Calcutta as a professor of physics. There, despite racial discrimination and a lack of funding and equipment, Bose carried on his scientific research. He made remarkable progress in his research of remote wireless signalling and was the first to use semiconductor junctions to detect radio signals. However, instead of trying to gain commercial benefit from this invention, Bose made his inventions public in order to allow others to further develop his research.
Bose subsequently made a number of pioneering discoveries in plant physiology. He used his own invention, the crescograph, to measure plant response to various stimuli, and thereby scientifically proved parallelism between animal and plant tissues. Although Bose filed for a patent for one of his inventions because of peer pressure, his objections to any form of patenting was well known. To facilitate his research, he constructed automatic recorders capable of registering extremely slight movements; these instruments produced some striking results, such as quivering of injured plants, which Bose interpreted as a power of feeling in plants. His books include Response in the Living and Non-Living (1902) and The Nervous Mechanism of Plants (1926).
== Early life and education == [[image:J.C.Bose.JPG|thumb|upright|Jagadish Chandra Bose in Royal Institution, London]] Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose was born in Munshiganj, Bengal Presidency, (present-day Bangladesh) Bardhaman and other places.
Bose's education started in a vernacular school, because his father believed that one must know one's own mother tongue before beginning English, and that one should know also one's own people. Speaking at the Bikrampur Conference in 1915, Bose said:
Bose joined the Hare School in 1869 and then St. Xavier's School at Kolkata. In 1875, he passed the Entrance Examination (equivalent to school graduation) of the University of Calcutta and was admitted to St. Xavier's College, Calcutta. At St. Xavier's, Bose came in contact with Jesuit Father Eugene Lafont, who played a significant role in developing his interest in natural sciences. He received a BA from the University of Calcutta in 1879. Bose went to England to study Medicine at the University of London. However, he had to quit because of ill health. The odour in the dissection rooms is also said to have exacerbated his illness. and a DSc from the University of London in 1896.
== Radio research ==
The Scottish theoretical physicist James Clerk Maxwell mathematically predicted the existence of electromagnetic radiation of diverse wavelengths, but he died in 1879 before his prediction was experimentally verified. Between 1886 and 1888, German physicist Heinrich Hertz published the results of his experiments on electromagnetism, which showed the existence of electromagnetic waves in free space. Subsequently, British physicist Oliver Lodge, who had also been researching electromagnetism, conducted a commemorative lecture in August 1894 (after Hertz's death) on the quasi-optical nature of "Hertzian waves" (radio waves) and demonstrated their similarity to light and vision including reflection and transmission at distances up to 50 metres. Lodge's work was published in book form and caught the attention of scientists in different countries, including Bose in India.
The first remarkable aspect of Bose's follow-up microwave research was that he reduced the waves to the millimetre level (about 5 mm wavelength). He realised the disadvantages of long waves for studying their light-like properties. Lieutenant Governor Sir William Mackenzie witnessed Bose's demonstration in the Kolkata Town Hall. Bose wrote in a Bengali essay, Adrisya Alok (Invisible Light), "The invisible light can easily pass through brick walls, buildings etc. Therefore, messages can be transmitted by means of it without the mediation of wires."
===Place in radio development=== Bose' work in radio microwave optics was specifically directed towards studying the nature of the phenomenon and was not an attempt to develop radio into a communication medium. His experiments took place during this same period (from late 1894 on) when Guglielmo Marconi was making breakthroughs on a radio system specifically designed for wireless telegraphy and others were finding practical applications for radio waves, such as Russian physicist Alexander Stepanovich Popov radio wave base lightning detector, also inspired by Lodge's experiment. Bose was not interested in patenting his work and openly revealed the operation of his galena crystal detector in his lectures. A friend in the US persuaded him to take out a US patent on his detector but he did not actively pursue it and allowed it to lapse." He was also the first to study the action of microwaves in plant tissues and corresponding changes in the cell membrane potential. He researched the mechanism of the seasonal effect on plants, the effect of chemical inhibitors on plant stimuli and the effect of temperature. From the analysis of the variation of the cell membrane potential of plants under different circumstances, he hypothesised that plants can "feel pain, understand affection etc."
== Study of metal fatigue and cell response == Bose performed a comparative study of the fatigue response of various metals and organic tissue in plants. He subjected metals to a combination of mechanical, thermal, chemical, and electrical stimuli and noted the similarities between metals and cells. Bose's experiments demonstrated a cyclical fatigue response in both stimulated cells and metals, as well as a distinctive cyclical fatigue and recovery response across multiple types of stimuli in both living cells and metals.
Bose documented a characteristic electrical response curve of plant cells to electrical stimulus, as well as the decrease and eventual absence of this response in plants treated with anaesthetics or poison. The response was also absent in zinc treated with oxalic acid. He noted a similarity in reduction of elasticity between cooled metal wires and organic cells, as well as an impact on the recovery cycle period of the metal.
== Science fiction ==
In 1896, Bose wrote Niruddesher Kahini (The Story of the Missing One), a short story that was later expanded and added to Abyakta (অব্যক্ত) collection in 1921 with the new title Palatak Tuphan (Runaway Cyclone). It was one of the first works of Bengali science fiction. It has been translated into English by Bodhisattva Chattopadhyay.
== Legacy ==
[[File:Acharya Bhavan - Kolkata 2009-11-07 2938.JPG|thumb|right|upright|Acharya Bhavan, the residence of J C Bose built in 1902, was turned into a museum.]]
Bose's place in history has now been re-evaluated. His work may have contributed to the development of radio communication.
Many of his instruments are still on display and remain largely usable now, over 100 years later. They include various antennas, polarisers, and waveguides, which remain in use in modern forms today.
To commemorate his birth centenary in 1958, the JBNSTS scholarship programme was started in West Bengal. In the same year, India issued a postage stamp bearing his portrait.
On 14 September 2012, Bose's experimental work in millimetre-band radio was recognised as an IEEE Milestone in Electrical and Computer Engineering, the first such recognition of a discovery in India.
On 30 November 2016, Bose was celebrated in a Google Doodle on the 158th anniversary of his birth.
== Honours == * Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE, 1903) * Companion of the Order of the Star of India (CSI, 1912) * Knight Bachelor (1917) * Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS, 1920)
== Publications ==
;Journals * Nature published about 27 papers. * *
;Books * [https://archive.org/details/responseinliving00boseuoft Response in the Living and Non-living, 1902] * [https://archive.org/details/plantresponseasm00boseuoft Plant response as a means of physiological investigation, 1906] * [https://archive.org/details/comparativeelect00boseuoft Comparative Electro-physiology: A Physico-physiological Study, 1907] * [https://archive.org/details/researchesonirri1913bose Researches on Irritability of Plants, 1913] * [https://www.gutenberg.org/files/48280/48280-h/48280-h.htm Life Movements in Plants (vol.1), First Published 1918, Reprinted 1985] * [https://www.gutenberg.org/files/40050/40050-h/40050-h.htm Life Movements in Plants, Volume II, 1919] * [https://archive.org/details/physiologyofasce00bose Physiology of the Ascent of Sap, 1923] * [https://archive.org/details/physiologyofphot00bose The physiology of photosynthesis, 1924] * The Nervous Mechanisms of Plants, 1926 * Plant Autographs and Their Revelations, 1927 * [https://archive.org/details/growthtropicmove00bose Growth and tropic movements of plants, 1929] * Motor mechanism of plants, 1928
;Other * J.C. Bose, Collected Physical Papers. New York, N.Y.: Longmans, Green and Co., 1927 * Abyakta (Bengali), 1922
== Notes ==
== References == *Mukherji, Visvapriya, Jagadish Chandra Bose, second edition, 1994, Builders of Modern India series, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, .
== Further reading == * * * J.M. Payne & P.R. Jewell, "The Upgrade of the NRAO 8-beam Receiver," in Multi-feed Systems for Radio Telescopes, D.T. Emerson & J.M. Payne, Eds. San Francisco: ASP Conference Series, 1995, vol. 75, p. 144 * Fleming, J. A. (1908). [https://archive.org/details/principleselect00flemgoog The principles of electric wave telegraphy]. London: New York and. *
== External links ==
* [http://www.boseinst.ernet.in/home.html Bose Institute website] * [http://web.mit.edu/varun_ag/www/bose.html SIR JAGADISH CHANDRA BOSE: the unsung Hero of Radio Communication] at web.mit.edu J. C. Bose, The Unsung hero of radio communication * [http://www.tuc.nrao.edu/~demerson/bose/bose.html JC Bose: 60 GHz in the 1890s] * Science Magazine on Bose priority * [http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Jagadish_Chandra_Bose IEEEGHN: Jagadish Chandra Bose] at www.ieeeghn.org * [http://www.infinityfoundation.com/ECITboseframeset.htm ECIT Bose article] at www.infinityfoundation.com * [http://www.iisc.ernet.in/insa/ch2.pdf INSA publication] * [http://didyouknow.org/history/radiohistory/ Radio history] * India's Great Scientist, J. C. Bose * * (Project Gutenberg) * (Project Gutenberg) * * [http://www.saadigitalarchive.org/entity/jagadis-chandra-bose Jagadish Chandra Bose materials in the South Asian American Digital Archive (SAADA)] * [http://www.sf-encyclopedia.com/entry/bengal Entry on Bangla science fiction by Bodhisattva Chattopadhyay in The Science Fiction Encyclopedia]
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